A quick intro to some common Cannabinoids
THC and CBD are the two most prominently discussed cannabinoids, but there are actually several more cannabinoids in the cannabis plant. Many are still being discovered and researched. To name a few there are: CBG, THC, THCV, CBN, CBD, CBC. All of these cannabinoids start off in their acid form, ex: CBGA, THCA, CBDA, CBCA. It is not until the introduction of heat in a process called decarboxylation that we get the cannabinoids that we are most familiar. The acid forms of these cannabinoids do have medical value but we are going to primarily focus on the already decarboxylated versions in this article.
CBG aka Cannabigerol is the primary cannabinoid from which all others derive. It is the first neurogenic compound found in cannabis. (The plant first makes CBGA and then converts it to into other cannabinoids, the three major branches are THCA, CBDA, CBCA)
Some medical properties attributed to CBG are:
- Non-Psycho active
- Bone Stimulant
- Anti-proliferative (CBG has been reported to inhibit the growth of human epithelial cancer tumors
- Probably the most intriguing and important of compounds found in the plant
- Strongly regenerative compared to other cannabinoids
- Down regulates scar tissue
- Likely insomnia treatment
THC aka Tetrahydrocannabinol is thought to be the most psychoactive of all the cannabinoids and is largely attributed to having many beneficial medicinal properties. (THCA and its derivatives are the 1st most major branch of cannabinoids)
Some medicinal properties attributed to THC are:
- Antiemetic (treatment of nausea)
- Anti-tumor (in high dosages)
- Appetite Stimulant (low dosages)
- Neuro Protectant
THCV aka Tetrahydrocannabivarin is a variation of THC that has a three-carbon alkyl side chain as opposed to the more common five-carbon alkyl side chain. THCV strongly increases the psycho activity in THC as a protagonist, but does also shorten the duration of THC activity. THCV is more often found in your Sativa dominant strains and has a stronger energetic property
Some medical properties attributed to THCV are:
- Affects the psycho activity of THC
- Anorectic (reduces appetite)
- Bone cell stimulant (thought to be the best of all the cannabinoids in this area)
- Blocks the panic in PTSD (fight or flight response)
- Reduction in tremors in Parkinson’s disease (likely the same in other similar disease)
CBN aka Cannabinol is a product of degraded THC. Fresh samples of cannabis contain very little CBN. CBN is often the product of curing, poor storage, processing, cooking time when making edibles.
Some medical properties attributed to CBN are:
- Mildly psychoactive
- Sedative (in a 2.5-5mg dosage CBN is 6-10x more sedative than other cannabinoids)
CBD aka Cannabidiol, after THC is the most widely studied of all the cannabinoids. It is believed to have numerous beneficial properties. ( CBDA and its derivatives are the 2nd most major branch of cannabinoids)
Some medical properties attributed to CBD are:
- Non-Psycho active
- Anti-metastatic (in high dosages)
- Neuro protective
- Counter agent to THC toxicity (down regulates the psychoactive effects of THC)
- It is worth noting that CBD is very versatile but is not a Panacea
CBC aka Cannabichromene, to date CBC has received very little clinical research. Despite the fact the CBCA and its derivatives are the 3rd most major branch of cannabinoids.
Some medical properties attributed to CBC are:
- Non-psycho active
- Strongly anxiolytic (5-10x more potent in this are that CBD)
- 2nd neurogenic compound found in Cannabis
- Bone Stimulant
- Similar properties to CBD and less so but also THC
All of the above-mentioned cannabinoids are what are called Exogenous Cannabinoids, meaning they are produced from outside the body and must be consumed to interact with the Endocannabinoid system. AEA (Anandimide) and 2-AG (2-Arachidonoylglycerol) are what is called Endogenous Cannabinoids. This means they are produced in the body, by the body in order to interact with the Endocannabinoid system. These Endogenous cannabinoids act in the same way Exogenous Cannabinoids do.
AEA and 2-AG are:
- Retrograde messengers in the nervous system
- Autocrine and Paracrine mediators
- Synthesized “on demand” from cell membrane precursors (arachidonic acid derivatives) and immediately released.
There is much more that could be said about all these Exogenous and Endogenous Cannabinoids. Continued research and knowledge gathering is always suggested to Medical Cannabis Patients. One thing that should be taken from this article is that cannabinoids are meant to interact with the Endocannabinoids System and aid in the promotion of cellular homeostasis. There are many methods of administration and routes of action that the Endocannabinoid System utilizes exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids to react to many of the bodies signals.